The landlord-tenant relationship is complex, governed by a web of regulations that both parties must adhere to. For landlords in Virginia, understanding the legal grounds and procedures for eviction is critical to managing their properties effectively and minimizing potential legal challenges.

Evictions are legal processes that allow landlords to reclaim their property under specific circumstances mandated by law. In Virginia, the eviction process is detailed and requires landlords to follow steps meticulously to ensure that evictions are lawful and ethical.

This article aims to provide comprehensive, detailed eviction laws in Virginia, highlighting the necessities for landlords navigating the eviction process.

Grounds for Eviction in Virginia

Eviction is a serious matter, not just for tenants but also for landlords who must ensure they act within the law. In Virginia, a landlord cannot evict a tenant without legal cause. These causes are specified by state law and include:

  • Nonpayment of Rent: This is the most common ground for eviction. A landlord may initiate the eviction process if rent is not paid on time.
  • End of Lease or No Lease: This applies to "tenant at will" scenarios or when a fixed-term lease ends and the tenant does not leave.
  • Lease Violation: Tenants violating specific lease terms may face eviction, depending on the nature of the breach.


  • Illegal Activity: Tenants engaged in unlawful activities on the premises can be evicted without prior notice.

For each of these grounds, the landlord must provide adequate notice, with the specifics varying based on the reason for eviction.

Steps of Eviction in Virginia

Evicting a tenant can be lengthy, taking anywhere from two to four months and potentially longer if a jury trial is requested.

Here's a simplified overview:

Proper Notice

First and foremost, landlords must serve the tenant with the appropriate notice, allowing tenants to rectify the issue (if rectifiable) before further legal actions can be taken.

Types of Eviction Notices in Virginia

  • 5-Day Notice for Nonpayment of Rent: If rent is overdue, landlords must give the tenants a 5-day notice to pay up or vacate the premises.
  • 30-day Notice for Lease Violation: A 30-day notice is required for other lease violations. Tenants have 21 days to cure the violation. If uncured, the tenant must vacate after 30 days.
  • Immediate Eviction for Illegal Activity: In cases of illegal activity, landlords may evict the tenant without prior notice.

Serving an Eviction Notice in Virginia

The manner of serving notices is equally essential. Virginia law requires that tenants receive eviction notices either personally, by posting the notice to the premises door while mailing a copy, or through certified mail.


This ensures the tenant is adequately informed of the eviction process, allowing them to address the issue.

Tenant Eviction Defenses in Virginia

Tenants may have defenses available in eviction cases, such as proving that the landlord failed to maintain livable conditions or retaliated against the tenant for exercising a legal right.

Landlords need to prepare for possible defenses to streamline the eviction process.

Attending the Court Hearing

Both the landlord and the tenant are required to attend the eviction hearing in court. This crucial legal proceeding allows each side to present their case in a structured and formal setting, ensuring fairness and adherence to the judicial process.

During the hearing, evidence and arguments are given, allowing the judge to make an informed decision based on the merits of each case. If the court ultimately rules in favor of the landlord, a writ of possession is issued.

This writ is a legal document that authorizes the landlord to regain possession of the property, marking a critical step in the eviction process and allowing it to proceed to the following stages, including the physical removal of the tenant from the property if necessary.

Writ of Restitution

After a court has decided in favor of the landlord, in cases where the tenant refuses to vacate the property, the next step involves the issuance of a writ of restitution.


This legal document is critical as it grants permission for law enforcement officers to step in and physically remove the tenant from the premises, ensuring the landlord can regain possession of their property.

This process underscores the legal measures to address non-compliance with court orders in rental disputes.

The Eviction

Once all legal avenues have been exhausted and the court has granted permission, the eviction physically occurs.

Landlords must follow this process legally to avoid claims of illegal eviction practices.

Illegal Evictions in Virginia

Landlords are not allowed to use "self-help" eviction techniques, like locking doors, turning off utilities, or taking possession of the tenant's things without a judge's approval.

Such actions may result in harsh consequences, such as fines and damages that the tenant must pay.

Final Words

Understanding and strictly following the legal process for eviction ensures landlords in Virginia can manage their properties effectively while upholding the rights of their tenants. It is always advisable to seek legal counsel when navigating the complexities of eviction to avoid potential pitfalls and legal challenges.

For expert guidance on navigating Virginia's eviction laws and ensuring legal compliance in managing your rental properties, contact First Providence Realty today. Our experienced team specializes in landlord-tenant relations, offering comprehensive support throughout eviction.

Whether you need assistance serving eviction notices, attending court hearings, or understanding tenant eviction defenses, we help protect your rights and property investments. C

Contact First Providence Realty now to secure your property management success in Virginia!